Table of content:
General teaching tips
General Teaching Progression
Swimmer with Trouble Breathing
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the exercises that optimize muscle ratios of the periscapular musculature for scapular stability and isolated strengthening.
Methods: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Discovery Layer. Studies were included if they examined the muscle activation of the upper trapezius compared to the middle trape- zius, lower trapezius, or serratus anterior using EMG during open chain exercises. The participants were required to have healthy, nonpathological shoulders. Information obtained included maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) values, ratios, standard deviations, exercises, and exercise descriptions. The outcome of interest was deter- mining exercises that create optimal muscle activation ratios between the scapular stabilizers.
Results: Fifteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Exercises with optimal ratios were eccentric exercises in the frontal and sagittal planes, especially flexion between 180° and 60°. External rotation exercises with the elbow flexed to 90° also had optimal ratios for activating the middle trapezius in prone and side-lying positions. Exercises with optimal ratios for the lower trapezius were prone flexion, high scapular retraction, and prone external rotation with the shoulder abducted to 90° and elbow flexed. Exercises with optimal ratios for the serratus anterior were the diagonal exercises and scapular protraction.
Conclusion: This review has identified optimal positions and exercises for periscapular stability exercises. Standing exercises tend to activate the upper trapezius at a higher ratio, especially during the 60-120° range. The upper trape- zius was the least active, while performing exercises in prone, side-lying, and supine positions. More studies need to be conducted to examine these exercises in greater detail and confirm their consistency in producing the optimal ratios determined in this review.
General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Move forward as much as possible during kick and stroke
Optimum alterations of action and relaxation of muscles during kicking , pulling and recovery
Increase propulsive forces by leg kick and arm pull
Make kick impulsive at the very beginning, sticking to water, and armstroke soft from beginning with acceleration at the end, with good water feeling
Decrease resistance of the body at all times. Make recovery action of arms and legs with good streamlined positions
Ensure rigid transfer of power to the body from kick and pull through locked joints in correct timing
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase
Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements as follows:
Hold the breath with leg kick, exhaling during arm pull, inhaling when bringing arms together and recovery actions
MODEL OF BREASTSTROKE SWIMMING TECHNIQUE
NAMES OF PHASES :
1. Leg kick phase
2. Gliding phase
3. Arm pull phase
4. Elbows bringing together phase
5. Arm recovery & leg flexion phase
This study investigated the effects of core muscle stability training on the weight distribution and stability of the elderly. Thirty elderly persons were randomly divided into an experimental group which performed core strengthening exercises, and a control group which performed standard strengthening exercises for 8 weeks. A Tetrax Interactive Balance System was used to evaluate the weight distribu- tion index (WDI) and the stability index (SI). The experimental group showed a significant improvement in terms of WDI and the SI. However, the control group showed no significant improvement in either. Core muscle stability training should be considered as a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve their WDI, and SI, and as a fall prevention measure.
Several studies have shown that mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings can elicit positive outcome such as: reducing anxiety or increasing psychological well-being, which could
be beneficial to the sport experience too. Evidence of mindfulness applied to the sport and physical activity context has not been yet systematically reviewed. A literature research was undertaken using
PsycInfo, Medline, Science direct, ISI web of Knowledge & Ovid databases, reviewing afterwards the references of the retrieved articles. Seven out of the 52 studies, dated between 2000 and 2010
and related to mindfulness and sport, exercise or physical activity, were analyzed. Research outcomes included high correlations between mindfulness and flow state, suggesting that the more
mindful individuals are, the more likely to experience flow states. Mindfulness-based interventions and mindfulness high score measures had no effect on sport performance improvement. However,
they may be effective in enhancing psychological well-being, directly related to the sport performance.
Mindfulness istherefore likely to have beneficial effects on the emotional wellbeing,
mental health, ability to learn and the physical health of school students. Such interventions are relatively cheap to introduce, have an impact fairly quickly, can fit into a wide range of contexts and are enjoyable and civilising, for pupils and staff.
A new study has an old answer for mental health issues: Physical exercise is an underutilized method to reduce depression and anxiety.
“In today’s rush, we all think too much — seek too much — want too much — and forget about the joy of just being” (Eckhart Tolle).
Mindfulness can add to the quality of our lives in numerous ways, from nurturing a sense of inner peace to improving the quality of a workout, from enhancing self-confidence to facilitating deeper and more meaningful relationships with others.
Mobile marketing impacts the sporting industry. Major sporting events are a key driver of emergent communication technologies, and text marketing is no different. The 2012 London Olympics saw mobile advertising grow by 50%, as businesses recognized the enormous power of the spectacle as an attention-grabber that could attendees into phone numbers on lists.
Other sports organizations are realizing the potential of text marketing as a way of engaging fans whose prior involvement in the game was limited to hollering support (or abuse!) from the touchline. The smartphones now carried by most fans allow them to interact directly with their club or team. Collegiate athletic departments are looking towards the 35% of young sports fans who routinely comment on games via social media.
Yes, people can change. But you can’t just snap your fingers and say goodbye to well-established patterns, even when those patterns result in bad consequences. Sure, you wish it could be easier. You may be impatient with yourself, giving yourself a good scold: “Just stop it already!” Oh, how I hate the word “just” when it pertains to change. We don’t change “just” because someone (even ourselves) wants us to.
Objective: To develop and assess the efficacy of a multimodal balance-enhancing exercise program (BEEP) designed to be regularly self-administered by community-dwelling elderly. The program aims to promote sensory reweighting, facilitate motor control, improve gaze stabilization, and stimulate continuous improvement by being constantly challenging. Method: Forty participants aged 60 to 80 years performed 6 weeks of BEEP training, on average for 16 min four times weekly, in a randomized one-arm crossover design. Results: One-leg standing time improved 32% with eyes open (EO), 206% with eyes closed (EC) on solid surface, and 54% EO on compliant surface (p < .001). Posturography confirmed balance improvements when perturbed on solid and compliant surfaces with EO and EC (p ≤ .033). Walking, step stool, and Timed Up and Go speeds increased (p ≤ .001), as did scores in Berg Balance and balance confidence scales (p ≤ .018). Discussion: Multimodal balance exercises offer an efficient, cost-effective way to improve balance control and confidence in elderly.
School physical activity programs are a key vehicle used in developing healthy active lifestyles among children and youth; however, the absence of mindfulness in these programs has given rise to numerous problems (such as body-mind dualism and stress) that interfere with attaining program objectives. This paper discusses what mindfulness is, why it is needed, and how mindfulness can be integrated into school physical activity programming.
As shown in this slide, the sport industry is composed of three distinct segments—egalitarian
sport (ie, participant sport), elite sport, and entertainment sport. Incidentally, the term
egalitarian means free, classless, equal, open, and unrestricted domain of activity.
Special issue of American Psychologist focusing on leadership theories.
Both satisfaction and mindfulness relate to sustained physical activity. This study explored their relationship. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 398 Dutch participants who completed measures on trait mindfulness, mindfulness and satisfaction with physical activity, physical activity habits, and physical activity. We performed mediation and moderated mediation. Satisfaction mediated the effect of mindfulness on physical activity. Mindfulness was related to physical activity only when one’s habit was weak. The relation of mindfulness with satisfaction was stronger for weak compared to strong habit. Understanding the relationship between mindfulness and satisfaction can contribute to the development of interventions to sustain physical activity.
We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis
of published and unpublished studies of health-related studies
related to MBSR.
A spread-sheet to practice not being judgemental.
Several studies have shown that mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings can elicit positive outcome such as: reducing anxiety or increasing psychological well-being, which could be beneficial to the sport experience too. Evidence of mindfulness applied to the sport and physical activity context has not been yet systematically reviewed.
Research outcomes included high correlations between mindfulness and flow state, suggesting that the more mindful individuals are, the more likely to experience flow states. Mindfulness-based interventions and mindfulness high score measures had no effect on sport performance improvement. However, they may be effective in enhancing psychological well-being, directly
related to the sport performance.
Keywords— Mindfulness, psychological well-being, sport performance, systematic review.
How to practice being mindfull?
Jump into the pool with Tonya Nascimento. Experience the rhythm of your stroke, the comfort of the water holding you up, the rush of the water past your ears, the craziness of hundreds of people swimming in circles and spaced just so. Competitive swimmers, like all athletes, can benefit from practicing in the moment.
Can we learn faster if we mentaly rehearse the movements?
One useful addition to the collection of activities in a practice session is to ask the learner to rehearse skills to be learned mentally, without performing actual, overt physical practice. In such mental practice the learner thinks about the skills being learned, rehearses each of the steps sequentially, and imagines doing the actions that would result in achieving the goal.
There are three stages in which motor learning occurs:
1. Cognitive Stage
2. Associative Stage
3. Autonomous Stage
Can we find a good examples for aech in swimming?
Background: Physical activity (PA) in older people is critically important in the prevention of disease, maintenance of independence and improvement of quality of life. Little is known about the physical activity of the older adults or their compliance with current physical activity guidelines.
Methods: A systematic literature search of the published literature was conducted. Included were published reports of original research that independently reported: the PA level of non-institutional older adults (aged 60 years and over); and the proportion of older adults in the different samples who met PA recommendations or guidelines. The review was restricted to studies published since 2000 to provide a current picture of older adults’ PA levels.
Results: Fifty three papers were included in the review. The percentage of older adults meeting recommended physical activity ranged from 2.4 – 83.0% across the studies. Definitions of “recommended” physical activity in older adults varied across the studies as did approaches to measurement which posed methodological challenges to data analysis. Older age groups were less likely than the reference group to be regularly active, and women were less likely than men to achieve regular physical activity, especially leisure time physical activity, when measured by both subjective and objective criteria.
Conclusion: The review highlights the need for studies which recruit representative random samples of community based older people and employ validated measurement methods consistently to enable comparison of PA levels over time and between countries.
There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5 days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits.
Objective: Physical activity can be an effective means of prevention and therapy of many psychosomatic disorders. It can also have a significant impact on the quality of life of older working-age people. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships between quality of life and physical activity in older working-age people from Wrocław, Poland.
Materials and methods: The study group comprised 1,013 people, including 565 women and 448 men, aged 55–64 years (59.1±2.9 years). The study took form of a questionnaire survey. The participants assessed their physical activity and quality of life using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Version (IPAQ-SF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively.
Results: The highest mean indices of general quality of life, perceived health status, and quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains were shown by respon- dents whose intensity of physical activity was the highest. Moreover, the odds of high assessment of overall quality of life increased with respondents’ higher levels of physical activity. Conclusion: Quality of life improvement programs should also involve increased physical activity components.
Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1) present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2) provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic bal- ance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity.
No matter your age, it is never too late to get fit.
What is sports marketing?
Some might argue that sports marketing is a “special case” of marketing, meaning there are theoretical and practical dimensions of marketing peculiar to sports marketing. For instance, courses are offered in services marketing, international marketing, business-to-business marketing and the like because the applications of marketing to these particular contexts require adaptation specific or special to each case. Following this logic, we should accordingly treat sports marketing as a special case to study because its processes do not function or generalize well for other goods and services. That is, some argue these special cases of marketing do not possess theoretically sound (or law-like) principles or axioms that guide practice across a variety of other business contexts.
Sports marketing uses sports, in any form, to help sell goods and services. This particular style of marketing is less about using a single strategy and more about using the content of sports to assist marketing efforts. This is not limited to professional sports, and may include college athletics, minor leagues, or alternative sports.
The aim of this review was to summarize the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of progressive resistance strength training (PRT) by older people with osteoarthritis (OA). When data from 8 RCTs were synthesized using meta-analysis, a significant benefit from PRT was found on lower extremity extensor strength (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12, 0.54), function (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.18) and pain reduction −0.35 (95% CI −0.52, −0.18). Across all three outcomes, the estimated effect size was moderate, which contrasted with trials of PRT in non-OA specific groups of older adults where a large effect was found on strength, but a small effect on function. This suggests that strength training has particularly strong functional benefits for older adults with OA. Older adults with osteoarthritis will benefit from a strength training program that provides progressive overload to maintain intensity throughout the exercise program. Clinicians should encourage participation in exercise training programs, even in the oldest old with OA.
Swim to live manual is an important contribution to European community with the
main objective to promote citizens to active lifestyle through swimming. Manual follows
several objectives as to increase social inclusion through sport for all population
regardless age, health status, social status, abilities and race and aims to develop a
certificate of competence named a »Swim to Live« licence for swimming instructors
and club leaders. Manual tackles all the most important fields important for swimming
instructors and organisers in the clubs from the swimming kinesiology, pedagogy,
coaching, motivation, markets plan and intercultural dialogue.
Tips for encouraging and supporting learning styles
The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People is a business and self-help book written by Stephen Covey. It resents an approach to being effective in attaining goals by aligning oneself to what he calls "true north" principles based on a character ethic that he presents as universal and timeless.
This article will focus on the emerging practice of mindfulness within the sporting environment. An overview of what mindfulness is and how it can help athletes will be outlined. Some tools that athletes can use to practice being mindful also are provided. Studies that support the theory will also be explored and a conclusion will summarise all the points highlighted within this article.
The continuous execution of swimming techniques, supported mainly by the upper limbs, may cause shoulder rotator muscle imbalances, which leads to injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two training programs on strength, balance and endurance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in youth swimmers. Twenty- five male swimmers were evaluated and randomly divided into two groups – the land group (n = 13), which conducted a conventional dry-land training program with elastic bands, and the water group (n = 12), which conducted a water resistance program. In both groups, the level of strength of the shoulder rotators was evaluated with an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions (baseline and after 10 weeks) using two protocols: i) three repetitions at 60o/s; ii) twenty repetitions at 180o/s. The land group significantly increased the unilateral ratios compared to the water group. The land group also decreased the external rotator levels of muscular fatigue. The dry-land training program conducted proved to be more effective than the one conducted in the water, allowing to reduce the muscle imbalance and to decrease muscle fatigue.
In this special issue of BioMed Research International, the focus is on lifestyle and in particular physical activity (PA) as a driver for a healthy and long life for older people.
As populations continue to extend life expectancy, a central concern is whether the added time comprises years of healthy life and promotes a high health-related quality of life into old age. PA is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expendi- ture. PA encompasses exercise, sports, and physical activities performed as part of daily living, occupation, leisure, or active transportation. Exercise is a subcategory of PA that is planned, structured, and repetitive and that has as a final or intermediate objective for improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical function is the capacity of an individ- ual to perform the physical activities of daily living. Physical function reflects motor function and control, physical fitness, and habitual PA .
Background: The elderly need strength training more and more as they grow older to stay mobile for their everyday activities. The goal of training is to reduce the loss of muscle mass and the resulting loss of motor function. The dose-response relationship of training intensity to training effect has not yet been fully elucidated.
Methods: PubMed was selectively searched for articles that appeared in the past 5 years about the effects and dose-response relationship of strength training in the elderly.
Results: Strength training in the elderly (>60 years) increases muscle strength by increasing muscle mass, and by improving the recruitment of motor units, and increasing their firing rate. Muscle mass can be in- creased through training at an intensity corresponding to 60% to 85% of the individual maximum voluntary strength. Improving the rate of force development requires training at a higher intensity (above 85%), in the elderly just as in younger persons. It is now recom- mended that healthy old people should train 3 or 4 times weekly for the best results; persons with poor performance at the outset can achieve improvement even with less frequent training. Side effects are rare.
Conclusion: Progressive strength training in the elderly is efficient, even with higher intensities, to reduce sarcopenia, and to retain motor function.
Becoming skilled at mindful awareness requires practicing mindfulness. Mindfulness training involves exercises such as the body scan exercise, which involves paying attention to specific areas of the body such as the feet, knees, stomach, shoulders, neck, and arms one by one. Another basic mindfulness exercise is the mindfulness of the breath exercise, which involves deep, rhythmic breathing. These mindfulness exercises can easily be found online. Practicing these exercises several times a day will help you develop greater awareness, and eventually you can translate this awareness to specific tasks and activities. For example, after practicing the body scan and mindfulness of the breath exercises, try practicing mindfulness while stretching. Notice the specific sensations in each muscle as you stretch and notice your breathing patterns.
Swimming is not dull but is, in fact, the ultimate, stripped-down moving meditation. The inability to see almost anything except the line at the bottom of the pool, and hear nothing but the rush of water, creates an insulating, cocooning effect.
It’s a kind of enforced underwater Pratyahara or “sense withdrawal”—the fifth element of yoga as described by the sage Patañjali in his Yoga Sutras. Shutting out external stimuli, such as the glare of the swimming pool lights or drone of pop music, lets the mind settle.
Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1- repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions.
Prepares the body for the demands of a work out or practice
–Increases heart rate, respiratory rate and blood flow to the muscles
–Increases core body temperature
–Enhances muscle elasticity
This guide will start by outlining the key trends that marketers and agencies need to tap to win in today’s sports marketing environment. Then it will identify the core challenges that must be addressed to fully exploit these opportunities. It will sum-up with inspiration from two experienced sports marketers, one on the client brand marketer side (Ford) and one giving a rights holder perspective (EFL).